Lithium Ion Battery Pack: How is it tested?

Once the battery pack assembly is ready as per the design, the next step is to test the battery pack to verify the performance of the battery pack as per the application. The tests differ as per the request and the environment (Rajasekhar & Gorre, 2016). There are three types of tests that make sure that the battery pack is safe to work with:

  • Performance Test
  • Abuse Test
  • Compliance Test

Performance Test

The primary purpose of carrying this test on the battery pack is to verify the charge, discharge, cycling, thermal stability, open circuit, and environmental compatibility of the pack. This test required to create the same environmental condition around the battery pack as per the application while testing.

Name of the test Description
Constant power discharge This test is to verify the capacity of the pack using various constant power loads
Peak power discharge Determine the power level when the battery voltage drop to 2/3 of the starting open-circuit voltage (OCV)
Application-specific cycle test Cycle the battery pack as per the application requirement. There are two ways to conduct this test. One is to measure for the short term performance of the battery pack, and second is Long term performance. The advantage of ling term cycle testing is, it gives the measurement of the degradation concerning the usage of the battery pack
Stand Test This test is to determine the self-discharge of the battery while not in use
Thermal Test This test is to identify the thermal stability of the battery pack. The temperature of the cell above the ambient temperature and the difference between coldest and hottest cell at the worst condition of the cycle is useful to determine the thermal management strategy.
Vibration Test The application of the vibration on three axis of the pack gives the idea about the performance variation of the battery pack due to vibration. It helps to determine the physical strength of the battery pack.

Abuse Testing

The abuse test is to get the idea about the performance of the battery pack in the harsh and non-ordinary condition of the battery pack. It is not necessary to comply with all these tests, But it proves the stability of the battery pack under the abnormal condition. These tests make the battery pack safe and acceptable for the application (Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, 2006).

Name of the tests Description
Short circuit Test the ability of the pack to protect itself and appliances in the event of a short circuit. Fuses can help to increase the safety of separate modules, BMS, cell, and a group of cells.
Overcharge This test determines the ability of the pack to prevent the overcharge of the cell, which can avoid the event of overvoltage at terminals.
Crush Evaluate the behavior of the battery pack after any accident.
Drop Evaluation of output and mechanical structure of the battery pack after being dropped.
Shock Observe the effect of the shock from three axes of the battery pack.
Immersion Test the capability of the battery pack to isolate its components from water while immersed.

Compliance Test

Every product has to meet some standard requirements. Compliance tests are the set of standards to verify the construction and safety of the battery pack for a particular application. The battery pack is an electrochemical device. It has to meet the standards of safety, environment, and electromagnetic components. The set of rules differs based on the application and area where the battery pack is going to work. Such as for the US market, DOT 49 CFR parts 1000-185 stands for the transportation regulation. In contrast, for worldwide UN 38.3 stands for the safety of Li-Ion battery during transportation, UN 2271 holds for the flammable class 3 goods.


Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, C. C. (2006). FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

Rajasekhar, M. V., & Gorre, P. (2016). High voltage battery pack design for hybrid electric vehicles. 2015 IEEE International Transportation Electrification Conference, ITEC-India 2015, 1–7.

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